# CS 101/Additional Materials/Chapter 18

http://www.computing.dcu.ie/~dfitzpat/content/computers-strengths-and-limitations Date Retrieved: 12/4/15 Peter Doyle The title of chapter 18 is Limitations of Computing and the above article discusses just that. The article breaks down each part of a computer and provides us with its strengths as well as a list of its weaknesses. These weaknesses expose the computer's limitations. It is helpful because it shows us the positives as well as the negatives of computing.

http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/the-fundamental-physical-limits-of-computation/ 12/7/2015 I found this article very interesting. It talks about the phyisical limits of computing software and hardware. I think that the article makes a great point for the current state of computer technology but does not considered that the technology could develop at insane rates in the future allowing more and more speed and accuracy.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LQwtEqxexV4 The website gives a video presentation about a great lecture that goes into many different details about the limitations of computing. Jaclyn Mason

## Section 18.1 Hardware

### Limits on Arithmetic

#### Integer Numbers

#### Real Numbers

### Limits on Components

### Limits on Communications

#### Parity Bits

http://techterms.com/definition/parity_bit This website gives you a simple explanation of parity bits. It also gives you examples of odds and evens which is good for visual learners. (April 30 2016) -Danielle Gary

Parity bits http://www.tutorialspoint.com/computer_logical_organization/error_codes.htm this website gives a more in depth explanation of parity bits. may 9 2016. Scott Shea.

#### Check Digits

http://www.augustana.ab.ca/~mohrj/algorithms/checkdigit.html A much more brief explanation of the topic Check Digits. It also provides a testing button to check the answer for the formula. -Justin Cabacungan (Date Added: May 05, 2016)

#### Error-Correcting Codes

http://users.ece.cmu.edu/~koopman/des_s99/coding/ Coding for Error Detection and Correction Spring 1999 Carnegie Mellon University This site contains an index of web pages which provides instruction in numerous areas of error detection and correction. It is well beyond what Chapter 18 contains but is most interesting to a computer science major. Bob Lafrance

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cBBTWcHkVVY this is honestly one of the best videos ive seen for error correcting, it made me understand it a lot more, a good visual aspect of error coding -Liz Cochrane

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LiGiU7zrLnU this shows how to correct errors with a good visual. Rebecca Campbell

## Section 18.2 Software

http://www.tutorialspoint.com/software_engineering/software_engineering_overview.htm This website describes the many components of software and gives a thorough overview. ADDED By: Kylie Sauter on 3 MAY 2016

### Complexity of Software

http://www.tutorialspoint.com/software_engineering/software_design_complexity.htm This website goes into more detail regarding software complexity. It also goes through parts of the design mechanisms. -Jess Krafft

### Current Approaches to Software Quality

#### Software Engineering

#### Formal Verification

#### Open-Source Movement

Here I found an overview of "the Open-Source Movement" https://www.ischool.utexas.edu/~l38613dw/readings/OpenSourceOverview.html Posted on Dec. 10, 2015 Matt Lanteigne

### Notorious Software Errors

http://www.computerworld.com/article/2515483/enterprise-applications/epic-failures--11-infamous-software-bugs.html I liked this article because it was entirely about the 11 most infamous software bugs and and it was very interesting and realistic to hear all the effects they caused. Date Created: Sep. 9, 2010 Date Added: 12-15-15 Rebecca Sherr

#### AT&T Down for Nine Hours

http://www.phworld.org/history/attcrash.htm This article gives a summary of the infamous AT&T system crash (Added by Zachary Halzel on May 3, 2016)

#### Therac-25

#### Bugs in Government Projects

http://phys.org/news/2013-12-tech-bugs-plague-federal.html Tech bugs plague federal projects December 5, 2013 by Joseph Tanfani. Interesting website talks about all the websites that had bugs on US Government sites and the problems they caused for example the Obama Administration. Posted by Rebecca Peacott 4/27/16

## Section 18.3 Problems

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bQpk5taXh1s : The Limitations of Computing. Date added: 11 May 2015. Date created: 1 May 2013. This video answers what the limits of computing and artificial intelligence systems, and if computers will ever stop improving. Olivia Giedymin.

### Comparing Algorithms

#### Big-O Analysis

https://www.interviewcake.com/article/python/big-o-notation-time-and-space-complexity Date Added 12/12/15. This website gives a more simplified view of what Big O notation does. It talks about the idea that is behind Big O notation, and it breaks down the steps of what Big O is used to analysis. This website also shows a few examples of coding, what the notation for each example is, and how they got that number. ~Caitlyn Lambert-Hutchinson

https://justin.abrah.ms/computer-science/big-o-notation-explained.html
This webpage explains the Big O notation from a computer programmer who taught himself. They make it very easy to understand and explain everything in clear detail. Date Created: Unknown. Date Added: 5/1/2016. - Samantha Stuart

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V6mKVRU1evU This YouTube video is extremely helpful on breaking down the Big O notation. The video is 20 minutes long and is very clear and precise. - Mike Huynh 5/7/16

#### Common Orders of Magnitude

http://www.vendian.org/envelope/TemporaryURL/what_is_oom.html I chose this website because it gives definitions, along with examples. It walks you through an everyday example of how you can come across common orders of magnitude. Christopher Phethean 5/3/2016

### Turing Machines

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dNRDvLACg5Q Found this video helpful in explaining Turing Machines Ian Kelly

http://mathworld.wolfram.com/TuringMachine.html This website is useful for more information on Turing Machines. Nicole Berry

What Is A Turing Machine?
https://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/projects/raspberrypi/tutorials/turing-machine/one.html
Added on May 2nd, 2016.
Last updated in 2012.
This website sums up what Turing Machines are and gives a couple of examples, or demonstrations, to help people understand better how the machine works.
Urooj Haider

### Halting Problem

http://www.coopertoons.com/education/haltingproblem/haltingproblem.html This website explains the halting problem and the history behind it and a lot of examples and details about it. Date posted December 12,2015 Kristina Mironidis

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=macM_MtS_w4 This video gives overview of the halting problem, uploaded by Computerphile on Aug 21, 2014. Sworup Ojha 5/7/16