Category Archives: Week 6

API (Application Programming Interface)

Applications such as Expedia, Amazon, Netflix or Facebook are using an API that facilitates the sharing data from one application to another. There are hundreds of APIs for many fields like finance, social network, payments and e-commerce. Nowadays, the fastest-growing category APIs is sharing and analyzing of data across various applications which is a place the characteristics of the API determine the value of the application or deem it untenable for use in the real world. But how could APIs connect each application together, let’s us take a deep dive into the world of APIs.

API stand for Application Programming Interface which includes three important components

  • Procedures: Known as routine which refer to the specific tasks or functions a program performs. For example: Facebook provides a search API for developers to examine data for analytical purpose
  • Protocols: The format is used to communicate data between applications. However application might not have the same format
  • Tools: Simply put – building blocks which is the recipe to construct new program

APIs are needed to bring applications together to perform a designed function which allows to use, share and execute data. APIs act as middle man, this allows developers to build new functions between applications and businesses use on a daily basis.

How APIs actually work?

Application: Enterprise businesses and corporation rely onto user financial data, inventory levels and purchase order confirmation back and forth between suppliers, customers and partners. Consumers and business depend on mobile application, spending much time per day on smartphone and tablet apps to exchange businesses with partner and customers.

Programming: Application relies on programming. The application does not make itself. In other words, we would not be able to make new application without developers who write the code to create, testing and design the application software and user interface.

Interface: This is where users and application interact with each other

API is important that without it we would not be able to order stuff from Amazon or personalize your favorite Google homepage. The simple way to understand APIs is to understand that API is an interface that let this application talk to another inside the application via commands designed by programmers.

Types of APIs

  • Rest APIs: known as RESTful APIs, stands for Representational State Transfer. It has grown in popularity of late, as an essential part of Web Services. It’s designed for developers to perform requests and receive responses via HTTP. There are four types of HTTP commands that REST is based on which are GET, PUT, POST, and DELETE. Instagram uses API for users to pull up information and pictures
  • SOAP APIs: Stands for Simple Object Access Protocol. SOAP is a protocol that is defined by a standard. It is dependent on XML-based systems and programming, has larger and more expensive data. Despite the disadvantages, SOAP provides better security for users.
  • RPC APIs: Remote Procedure Call was the earliest form of APIs. They are designed to execute the block of code on different servers.

APIs are running data for business every day. They give businesses and users the flexibility to increase productivity and improve security. Taking advantage of APIs can help them have innovative approaches. While the potential is undeniable, efficiency is still another matter.


From the blog CS@Worcester – Nin by hpnguyen27 and used with permission of the author. All other rights reserved by the author.


What is vs What isn’t

Docker is an infrastructure manager for Linux Containers. Docker is an excellent image distribution strategy for server templates created with configuration management systems like as Chef, Puppet, SaltStack, and others. Docker is not a replacement for Configuration Managers such as Chef, Puppet, SaltStack, and others. Docker offers a single store of public and private disk images that may be used to run a variety of operating systems (Ubuntu, Centos, Fedora, even Gentoo). Docker is not yet capable of connecting several servers or virtual machines.

When to use

Docker, like git or java, is a basic technology that you should start using in your everyday development and operations processes. You may use docker as a version control system for the complete operating system of your project. You can also use a docker to distribute/collaborate on your app’s operating system with a team. When your project has to go through many stages of development, use Docker. Try Drone or Shippable, both of which support Docker CI/CD. One of the best thing is that docker allows you to execute your code in the same environment as your server on your laptop.

Docker comparison

When you run java, you run the program on any system with a JVM, however, when you run docker, you run the code on any machine with a Docker server after you arrange your servers exactly the way you want them. Git tracks the changes in your code while docker tracks the changes in your system. In Docker, you can track changes throughout your entire system. GitHub is mainly though for code management, and Docker Hub is though for container build, management and distribution. They all work in the same way, despite the fact that they do various tasks.

Why docker

Since we’re already using Docker in class, why not take advantage of the extra time to learn more about it? I understood what Docker was but had never considered what it wasn’t, therefore this post helped me better comprehend what Docker isn’t. I’ve also discovered how docker is similar to both java and git, something I never considered before. I had no idea there were alternatives to Docker, such as the Amazon AMI Marketplace, which is the closest thing you’ll find to the Docker Index. With Docker, you can run the images on any Linux server that runs Docker. Another is the Warden project, which is an LXC manager designed for Cloud Foundry but lacks any of Docker’s social capabilities, such as sharing images with others on the Docker Index. The most important thing I learned is when to use docker.

From the blog cs@worcester – Dream to Reality by tamusandesh99 and used with permission of the author. All other rights reserved by the author.


Hello, I want to write this blog after finishing my exam like an hour ago; I am looking over some class activities and see any questions to review, but something that sometimes confused me. I read the word “docker-compose” in some class-work exercises; I got interested and looked it up again. I found two links that helped me understand what Docker Compose does and how you use Docker Compose?.

Docker Compose: Run multiple containers as a single service or extend many different Docker containers midway. Even an essential tool for any application that needs various micro-services, as it allows each service to be in a separately managed container easily.

What Does Docker Compose Do?

Docker containers are running applications in an isolated environment. Its application deployments are arranged in Docker for the benefit. However, it’s often complex as running a single container. Usually, Many containers come together to act as one service made up of many changing parts.

Running all deployment time is disordered, so Docker provides Docker Compose; it runs multiple containers to clean it up. It helps all arrangements in one YAML file and starts all the containers with one 


Rather than having all services in one big container, Docker Compose allows to split them up into individually manageable containers. This is better for building and deployment, and it can manage all of them in separate codebases and doesn’t need to start each container manually.

Using Docker Compose is a three-step process:

  • Build the part images using their Dockerfiles, or pull them from a registry.
  • Set all of the component services in a docker-compose.yml file.
  • Run all of them together using the docker-compose CLI.

Docker Compose still builds and publishes Docker containers using a Dockerfile. But, instead of running them directly, it can use Docker Compose to manage the configuration of a multi-container deployment.

How Do You Use Docker Compose?

The form for a docker-compose file is done in docker-compose.yml. It doesn’t need to place this at the root of a project like a Dockerfile. It can go anywhere as it doesn’t depend on any other code. However, it builds the images locally and will need to go into a project folder with the produced code.

A Compose configuration file that runs a WordPress instance using the WordPress container off the Docker Hub. However, this depends on a MySQL database, which Composes also creates.

  • First, a version number since the arrangement can change depending on which version.
  • Next, A list of Services. 
  • Lastly, the volumes are stored.

From the blog Andrew Lam’s little blog by and used with permission of the author. All other rights reserved by the author.


Docker is an open-source software that is used to deliver Linux and Windows images into virtual containers. According to this article, containers use shared operating systems, meaning that they are much more efficient than hypervisors in system resources terms. Instead of virtualizing hardware, containers rest on top of a single Linux instance. This means that 99.9 percent of useless VM junk is left behind, so we can have a small container containing necessary applications.

Specifically, container technology just abstracts the operating system kernel while the VMs hypervisor abstracts an entire device. Meaning that containers allow data center operators to cram much more workloads into less hardware. Furthermore, containers are portable, each instance is stored standalone in a port. It means that Docker allows you to run multiple copies of the same image in different local ports.

Another reason why Docker is so popular is its installation, downloading a whole application, for example, a database service, is usually frustrating since we have to follow strictly step by step, and if we mess up somewhere, the application will not function properly and we have to fix or reinstall the whole app. Docker is encapsulating the whole application into a container, to install a container to use locally, developers simply pull it from Docker Hub, which I will introduce below, with a command and run it.

Docker Hub is the largest library and community for container images, where users are able to find what image, container, command they need and share what they have to others. Just like GitHub, you will create an account and use it to fetch and push the source code or pull it from other people, but the repositories here are containers, image repositories. For instance, you need to set up the MySQL database for your application, instead of downloading and setting up the port for one database, you will look for it on Docker Hub and install it based on the repositories’ instructions and connect it to your computer port through a port. By the time this blog is posted, there are almost eight and a half million available images on Docker Hub for users to pull and work with.

In conclusion, Docker has revolutionized software development by making things possible. It gets more applications running on the same hardware; it is quick and simple to initiate an instance, therefore it makes managing and deploying applications much easier.

From the blog CS@Worcester – Vien's Blog by Vien Hua and used with permission of the author. All other rights reserved by the author.

Teamwork in the Industry

So I know I’m quite late to the topic, but way back in week 1 or 2 we went over the POGIL roles, responsibilities and basic structure. This for me has always been about learning to work in a team, regardless of the assigned jobs on the card – and I have to admit I’ve always had a hands off approach. I wouldn’t say I’m a bad team member, just an absent one. I wasn’t always engaged, and just wanted to meet some arbitrary requisite for a good enough grade. I’ve obviously adapted as projects and activities got harder, but this podcast episode seems to have broken me out of that passive mindset into something much more productive.

There is a bit of a disconnect here from myself to the podcasters, as they are experienced developers with years of managing experience, but nonetheless I think it helped me glance into a world that I knew absolutely nothing about. Kind of like a peek behind the curtain of what I should be expecting. My greatest takeaway is always defer to someone who has even a tad more expertise with a certain context. There’s simply too much to keep up with, and in order to do your job effectively, one must make a choice to lean into a specific type of architecture. Just be good at what you’re supposed to be good is my takeaway, I guess. Other peoples’ expertise will help whatever the team is working on, and your personal experience will almost always prove to be invaluable at some point in the project.

In addition, I think I’ve picked up a habit of deferring to other peoples’ techniques when solving a problem. I of course will point out if I think I see an error or bug, but it gives me a sense of wonder seeing how many different solutions people can come up with to a singular problem. There is so much ingenuity inherent to coders that it’s never a good idea to say “this is the way things should be done.” My father is an architect who advises some up and comers, and when I ask him, he is regularly annoyed with staff for not doing things “the right way.” I love the guy, don’t get me wrong, but after listening to the episode I have to say that this technique is too suffocating. Just like in architecture, writing code is an expression of will or intent through creation. To limit that in either capacity is unhealthy for the people who would pour their heart into the work.

I suppose that’s a bit philosophical, but nonetheless it’s a lesson I’m glad that I’ve been exposed to. Other nuggets in the episode are tips on efficiency and cohesion, but these two concepts are what really stuck with me.

Link to Episode –

From the blog CS@worcester – Dummies that Code by howbrash and used with permission of the author. All other rights reserved by the author.


The UML Class Diagram is a graphical notation used to construct and visualize object-oriented systems. The UML (Unified Modeling Language) can help model systems in various ways. One of the more popular types in UML is the class diagram, which is popular among software engineers to document software architecture, class diagrams are a type of structure diagram because they describe what must be present in the system being modeled. The most positive point about UML or class diagrams, it is that it has been designed to be simple and easy to use.

When using the UML, the class shape itself while writing the code and it consists of a rectangle with three rows. The top is for the name of the class, the middle row contains the attributes of the class, and the bottom one expresses the methods or operations that the class may use. Classes and subclasses are grouped together to show the static relationship between each object.

Perspectives of Class Diagram

The choice of perspective depends on how far along you are in the development process. A diagram can be interpreted from various perspectives:

  1. Conceptual: which represents the concepts in the domain
  2. Specification: whose focus is on the interfaces of Abstract Data Type (ADTs) in the software.
  3. Implementation: which describes how classes will implement their interfaces.

Relationships between classes

Classes are interrelated to each other in specific ways. In particular, relationships in class diagrams include different types of logical connections. The following are the types of logical connections that are possible in UML:

  1. Association
  2. Directed Association
  3. Reflexive Association
  4. Multiplicity
  5. Aggregation
  6. Composition
  7. Inheritance
  8. Realization

I chose this topic because I am interested in Software Development and UML Class Diagram is an important tool for software engineer. Class diagrams are the heart of UML. They are based on the principles of object orientation and can be implemented in various phases of a project. During the analysis they appear as the domain model where they attempt to create a representation of reality.

Working on activities in class and homework on UML Class Diagram made me understand more easier how to write programming projects. It’s simple, easy to read and today I can write a code based on a UML diagram or design a UML diagram while writing a code based on what project I want to do. Class diagram gives a sense of orientation and provides detailed insight into the structure of the systems. Class diagrams are a vital part of any software development project and they form the foundation of all software products.

UML Class Diagram Tutorial | Lucidchart

Class Diagram Relationships in UML Explained with Examples (

From the blog CS@Worcester – Software Intellect by rkitenge91 and used with permission of the author. All other rights reserved by the author.

A look over Docker

For this week’s blog post, I have decided to go over into more detail on docker since we have been setting up and working on docker for the last few weeks and I wanted to learn more about it. The source I have chosen seems to have a good amount of information about Docker that I can utilize the source is reputable. Here I have learned more on the general landscape of what docker is and its place in the digital world.

In this article that I have chosen, IBM goes over Docker with how Docker is an open source containerization platform that enables users to package and run code much more efficiently than other platforms. It is widely popular at over 11 million different developers using docker and you can find it mentioned anywhere container is mentioned on the internet. Docker while wasn’t the first to utilize container technologies, it did it in a revolutionary way in which it made the process us creating and utilizing these containers simpler, less resource intensive and more flexible allowing the developer to to more easily run their applications. Docker also provides portability where you are able to take packaged software and run it on other platforms and systems. There also isn’t the need for individual OS’s and other resources for each application that you want to run but instead they can all run on the same OS. The benefits are numerous and this has allowed Docker to explode in popularity over the years since 2013 and looks to keep on rising. The article also goes over some Docker terms and tools although there was a Kubernetes section which is now outdated since Kubernetes deprecated Docker.

This source had brought insight in what place docker had in the world and how it would affect me later on. I can see from the website that Docker seems to be continuously growing and will be a part of our coding lives for an extended period of time. The benefits are quite astounding considering it is also free to use in which any extra information on Docker will help down the line when we work on it more. It also makes me wonder on if Docker will stay on top forever. The growth has been continuous but it won’t stay like that maybe in a decade since we are always innovating further. There was that point where Kubernetes is mentioned to help with larger complex container environments in which Docker could potentially adapt in the future to help with these environments or perhaps might become outdated in the future. There is always the chance for competition to rise to go against Docker, perhaps by a bigger company like google.


From the blog CS@Worcester – kbcoding by kennybui986 and used with permission of the author. All other rights reserved by the author.


Whenever I played video games in the past, I would always be aware of a weird looking number, often resembling something along the lines of “1.2.3”. Even back then, I was aware that this number meant that I was using a certain version of a software; however, the idea of a value having multiple decimal points was perplexing to me. Upon doing some research, and performing a closer, more careful analysis behind the meaning of the number, I now understand why: this value is part of a system known as “SemVer” (Semantic Version).

SemVer is a special kind of number used to provide programmers and clients an awareness of a certain version of software. Basically, it is broken down into three different parts: MAJOR.MINOR.PATCH. A “MAJOR” number is incremented when code is added to a project that is not backwards compatible with previous versions. This kind of update will force users of the software to adapt in some way to the new changes.

On the other hand, a “MINOR” number is incremented upon creating (as the name implies) rather minor changes that do not result in breaking the program. All changes that result in a MINOR increment can work with previous versions of the software. Finally, the “PATCH” number receives an increment when very minor changes are made to a program. These changes often involve fixing bugs or other errors found within the MAJOR and MINOR releases.

Linked below is a YouTube video describing SemVer in detail, and it was made by a user known as “Inedo”; I chose this video simply because of the fact that it allows me to indulge in my favorite social media (YouTube) while also learning about SemVer. I guess I also chose this video in particular due to the fact that it is mainly audio; this is an easier video to play in the background as a “radio” during work than a normal video (which requires sitting down and paying attention).

Going forward, I plan on using my knowledge of SemVer for two purposes. First, when enjoying video games, I can now have a greater understanding of just how complete the product is (compared to when I was a kid). SemVer allows me to know just how much time and effort companies put into their software; while a higher SemVer number isn’t necessarily a hint of a better product, it does show that more time was dedicated to perfecting the craft. Second, I can use SemVer in my own coding adventures. Instead of making one program and being done with it, I can now create different versions of the product (for example, version 1.0.0). This knowledge will be especially useful when combined with collaborative software tools such as git and Scrum.

Note: The numbers in the title are NOT random. See if you can figure out what it means!


From the blog CS@Worcester – mpekim.code by Mike Morley (mpekim) and used with permission of the author. All other rights reserved by the author.


In class, for our activities and homework, the professor told us to download Visual Studio Code and Docker that we were going to use for the semester. I did not know what Docker was and what its purpose was going to be in this class. I was interested in learning more about Docker and why it is such a professional tool in software development.

In software, Docker is an open platform for developing, shipping, and running applications. It enables us to separate our applications from our infrastructure so we can deliver the software quickly. It is a set of platforms as a service product that use OS-level virtualization to deliver software in packages called containers. Containers are isolated from one another and bundle their own software, libraries and configuration files; they can communicate with each other through well-designed.

In a way, Docker is a bit like a virtual machine. But unlike a virtual machine, rather than creating a whole virtual operating system, Docker allows applications to use the same Linux kernel as the system that they’re running on and only requires applications be shipped with things not already running on the host computer.

And importantly, Docker is open source. This means that anyone can contribute to Docker and extend it to meet their own needs if they need additional features that aren’t available out of the box.

I chose this article because I was curious about Docker and wanted to know more about it. So, from all the sources that I could have found, this one has all the details about docker, docker containers, how needed it is in software development, and why it is so desired in companies.

Now that we know what Docker is, let’s understand why it is used and needed for software. Docker streamlines the development lifecycle by allowing developers to work using local standardized environments, using local containers which provide our applications and services.

I think one of the reasons Docker is important, is that it can get more applications running on the same hardware than other technologies, and makes it easier to package and ship programs, which is a high potential. Companies use Docker a lot in software where they do a lot of programming and applications because it makes the work easier and more portable.

As a computer science major, what I understood about Docker even though I have never used it, it’s a great platform when it comes to running applications and can do many of them at the same time. I am still getting used to it with the activities that we do in class and love to see how it works and its roles.

Docker containers, images, and registries | Microsoft Docs

From the blog CS@Worcester – Gracia's Blog (Computer Science Major) by gkitenge and used with permission of the author. All other rights reserved by the author.

Self-Directed Professional Development Post #6

For this week’s blog post, I’ve decided to continue watching the video I started in my professional development post #4, “Object Oriented Design Tutorial: Creating a UML Design from Scratch” and start the next video in this series titled, “Object Oriented Design Tutorial 2: How to Turn a UML Design into Code” by Derek Banas. The reason I picked this video is because 1. it directly relates to one of our course topics, “Modeling: Unified Modeling Language (UML)” and 2. because it teaches a methodical process to creating UML diagrams and the code that goes with it. Since I will likely be making more UML diagrams in my educational/professional life, I want to further develop these skills. In my last post, I learned how to use a Use Case Description to create an Object Model and a Sequence Diagram. In this post, I will start by discussing how an Object Model and the Sequence Diagram is used to create a Class Diagram. I will then move on to discussing how these models and diagrams can be used to create Java code.

When Derek is creating his Class Diagram, he uses his Object Model to create the class name and the data fields of his classes. Derek then uses his sequence diagram to bring in the methods for each of the classes he creates. One thing that I thought was interesting as he brought in the methods for his Class Diagram was that he added an additional method that he did not include in his logic when creating his sequence diagram. He added a getCoinOption method and stated that he may not end up needing this method but will include it just in case he missed something with his logic. It is nice to know that using his approach allows me to make these kinds of edits on the fly.

In Derek’s next video, he uses his class diagram to lay out the data fields and methods in his IDE. Once he has outlined his program, he uses the sequence diagram to write his code. Derek starts with the coin class. In this class he mentions how he starts with what makes the most sense to him to get his code to work. He mentions once his code works, he can come back and worry about optimization. He uses an array that contains heads or tails for the coin value and Math.random to return the value of the coin flip. Observing this process was beneficial because it showed me how important it is to think of the data structures I will be working with and the operations that I want to perform.

Overall, I’m very happy with this series. One of the things I enjoy the most is that Derek is doing all this from scratch so we get to see any obstacles that come up along the way. I’m looking forward to seeing his working program at the end.

Tutorial links:


From the blog Sensinci's Blog by Sensinci's Blog and used with permission of the author. All other rights reserved by the author.